Cardiovascular System

A typical person has around 4-5 litres of blood. The blood is the transport system by which oxygen and nutrients reach the body's cells, and waste materials are carried away. In addition, blood carries substances called hormones, which control body processes, and antibodies to fight invading germs.
The three main divisions of the circulatory system are:
Functions of Blood

1 Transports:

2 Maintains Body Temperature

3 Controls pH

4 Removes toxins from the body

5 Regulation of Body Fluid Electrolytes

Clotting Process

Within 20 seconds of an injury to a blood vessel the process of sealing this injury site begins. This process is termed coagulation. The stages of coagulation are as follows:

Circulatory Problems

Peripheral artery disease:

Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a condition where fatty deposits build up in the inner linings of the artery walls. The narrowing restricts blood circulation, mainly in arteries leading to the kidneys, stomach, arms, legs and feet. Early symptoms are cramping, fatigue or numbness in the legs and buttocks that occurs during moderate exercise or simple walking. The cramping usually stops as and when the person stands still. This is called "claudication." Those with the fatty deposits also run a higher risk of developing a stroke or a myocardial infarct, this can lead to death. People at risk of PAD are those that have Diabetes, Hypertension, High Cholesterol and smokers.

Treatment for these patients include the following:

Further Reading on the Circulatory System
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Flow through the Heart