A B C D E F
G H I J K L M
N O P Q R S T
U V W X Y Z
- Motion of a limb away from the midline
- Motion of a limb toward the midline
- Also known as "epinephrine". A drug given to counter
anaphylactic shock and severe asthma attacks. Also used during
- Agonal Respirations
- Slow, gasping respiration, sometimes seen in dying
- A sudden reaction to a foreign substance such as a bee sting,
peanut oil or legumes. Characterised by a red, puffy appearance to
the face and affected parts, impaired breathing and racing
- Absence of oxygen
- Means 'front'. Hence the anterior interventricular artery is at
the front of the body, the side where the face is normally.
- A swelling or enlargement of a part of an artery, resulting
from weakening of the arterial wall
- Angina Pectoris
- Transient chest discomfort caused by partial or temporary
blockage of blood flow to the heart muscle
- Angle of Louis
- A ridge on the sternum that lies at the level where the second
rib is attached to the sternum; provides a constant and reliable
bony landmark on the anterior chest wall
- The main artery of the body. Comes out of the heart and divides
into the ascending and descending aorta.
- Aortic Semi-lunar
- The valve between the left ventricle and the aorta.
- A simple and repeatable method to quickly and summarily assess
the health of newborn children immediately after childbirth.
- Cesation of respiration
- One of the body's highways for blood. Carries blood from the
heart to the tissues. Arterial blood is usually bright red and
under considerable pumping pressure.
- Spasm of bronchi causing difficulty in exhaling
- Chambers in the heart where blood is collected and pumped
through to the ventricles.
- A drug which has the effect of blocking vagal stimulation,
speeding up the heart. Also used during ALS to reverse asystole and
- method of assessing a patient's level of consciousness by
determining whether a patient is Alert, responsive to Verbal
stimulus or Pain, or Unresponsive; used principally in the initial
- Battle Signs
- Bruising behind an ear over the mastoid process that may
indicate skull fracture.
- The valve in the heart between the left atrium and left
- A body part or condition that appears on both sides of the
- Sudden and spontaneous transient loss of consciousness with complete recovery
- Slow heartbeat. In a normal adult, a heart rate under 60 is
considered bradycardic in most circumstances. However, some people
have a normal resting pulse lower than this, usually
- Inflammation of the bronchi
- Constriction of the bronchi
- Spasm of the bronchi, as in what happens during an asthma attack
- Brugada Syndrome
- Abnormal ST segment elevation in leads V1 to V3 on ECG. This predisposes to ventricular arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death, and may present with syncope.
- These blood vessels are very small and have thin walls so that
gaseous exchange between the blood and the tissues can take place.
Capillary bleeding is characterised by oozing.
- Cerebro-Spinal Fluid
- The liquid inside the skull in which the brain is suspended. It
cushions the brain against impacts to the skull.
- A word generally used to describe a squeezing or gripping pain, which is intermittent rather than continuous, and tends to come in waves.
- Coronary Arteries
- The arteries which supply oxygenated blood to the heart muscle.
They comprise the left and right coronary arteries.
- Cot Death
- See SIDS
- Stands for Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation. The process of
keeping someone alive by mechanically emulating the work of the
heart and lungs by compressing the chest and blowing air into the
- A machine which delivers a controlled electric pulse across the
chest to make the heart restart when it has stopped beating
effectively. Only usually effective when the heart is in VF.
- is progressive decline in cognitive function due to damage or
disease in the brain beyond what might be expected from normal
- Do Not Resuscitate.Written or verbal
instruction to medical/ambulance staff not to attempt resuscitation
in the event of cardiac arrest
- Difficult or laboured breathing
- The skin discoloration caused by the escape of blood into the tissues from
ruptured blood vessels, as in battle signs
- Also known as Nitronox. A mixture of gases: 50% oxygen, 50%
nitrous oxide. An effective analgesia for pain relief.
- Another name for hypothermia.
- A break or crack in a bone.
- Fowler Position
- The position in which the patient is
sitting up with the knees bent.
- Glasgow Coma Score
- A way of measuring the level of consciousness of a
- Golden Hour
- The time from injury to definitive care, during which treatment
of shock or traumatic injuries should occur because survival
potential is the best
- Vomiting blood. If the blood has been in the stomach and gastric juices have started to break it down it will be a dark red colour with small particles resembling coffee grounds.
- Blood stained urine caused by injury or disease of any of the urinary organs
- Heat Exhaustion
- A condition where the body's temperature rises above 38oC and
the person feels sick and dizzy. Caused by dehydration and
imbalance in electrolytes.
- A very serious condition when the body loses the ability to
regulate its own temperature and the internal temperature climbs to
a dangerous level (40C and above.) Requires urgent treatment.
- High levels of carbon dioxide
- Increased breathing rate
- When the body becomes too cold; clinically, when the core
temperature drops below 35 degrees Celsius.
- A low level of saturated oxygen in blood
- A low level of saturated oxygen in the tissues.
- A chronic condition where the normal trigger for breathing is
no longer effective, and the body relies on detecting low levels of
oxygen to start a breath. Can cause problems when administering
- Given by way of the veins.
- The veins which carry the main blood supply back down from the
- Kussmauls Respirations
- Deep, rapid breathing; usually the result of an accumulation of
certain acids when insulin is not available in the body
- A rough, ripped wound; e.g. caused by barbed wire.
- Left Coronary
- Supplies oxygenated blood to the left side of the heart and
part of the right side.
- Marginal branch
- Supplies blood to the right side of the heart. Part of the
right coronary artery.
- Faeces take on a dark colouration due to blood pigmentation. The stools may also be sticky
- The three membranes which cover the brain and protect it from
- A blockage in the coronary arteries which supply blood to the
myocardium. Commonly termed a heart attack.
- The muscle of the heart.
- Neurogenic Shock
- Caused by injury or insult to the nervous system.
- The part of the upper airway at the back of the
- Difficulty breathing unless in an upright position
- An injury to a lung such that air is present in the pleural
- Means 'back'. Hence the posterior interventricular artery is at
the back of the body, the side where the spine is.
- The period immediately following a seizure, characterized by
extreme tiredness or listlessness
- The blood vessel that carries deoxygenated blood from
the right ventricle to the lungs.
- Pulmonary Semi-lunar
- The valve between the right ventricle and the pulmonary
- Pulmonary vein
- The blood vessel that carries oxygenated blood from
the lungs to the left atrium.
- QRS complex
- The part of an ECG rhythm showing electrical activity in the
- An abnormal rattling sound heard during respiration
- A wheezing sound heard from the bronchial tubes
- Right coronary artery
- Supplies oxygenated blood to the right side of the heart and
some of the left side.
- The section of the heart separating the left and right atria
- Insufficient oxygen getting to where it is needed in the body.
Can be caused by many things including loss of blood, allergic
reactions, emotional response and damage to the spinal
- Sudden Infant Death Syndrome - is the sudden and unexplained death of an infant who is younger than 1 year old. Infants who die of SIDS generally do so in their sleep.
- High pitched whistle caused by obstruction in larynx or trachea
- The heart beating quickly. An adult heart is usually considered
tachycardic with a resting rate of more than one hundred beats per
- A pneumothorax injury where the air
cannot escape, leading to a steady build-up of pressure. Very
- The valve in the heart between the right atrium and right
- Interruption of the brain's normal activity so that it is no
longer aware of its surroundings.
- Vital Signs
- The key signs that are used to evaluate the patient's overall
condition, including respirations, pulse, blood pressure, level of
consciousness, and skin characteristics
- Veins carry blood back to the heart. Venous blood is usually
dark red and carries less oxygen than arterial blood. Venous
bleeding is characterised by its colour and gushing out of an
- Vena Cava
- The vein which returns blood to the right atrium of the heart.
Comprises the superior vena cava which comes down from above, and
the inferior vena cava which comes up from the lower body.
- Short for Ventricular Fibrillation. The muscles of the heart
are generating their own electrical pulses and the heart has no
organised waveform. This then causes the heart to 'quiver' which in
turn prevents any blood being pumped by the heart to the rest of
- Breathing with a rasp or whistling sound
- Viewing of a part of the body by means of passing very high
frequency electromagnetic waves through the part and measuring on
film the amount that gets through.
- A type of suction pipe
- The cheekbone.