What is Epilepsy?

Epilepsy is a neurological condition—that is, a condition affecting the nervous system. Epilepsy is also known as a seizure disorder. It is usually diagnosed after a person has had at least two seizures that were not caused by some known medical condition like alcohol withdrawal or extremely low blood sugar.

The seizures in epilepsy may be related to a brain injury or a family tendency, but most of the time the cause is unknown.


Epilepsy stems from dozens of causes: genetics, heredity, brain tumours, viral infections, head trauma from accidents or falls, alcoholism, Alzheimer's disease. The list goes on.

Types of seizure

Partial - Theses are often characterised by abnormal electrical activity that is found localised in one area of the brain. The result may be involuntary movement or unusual sensations (sensory neurons), and attention and behavioural changes.

General - May or may not be convulsive; usually involves a loss of consciousness. There is evidence of abnormal electrical activity in many areas of the brain.

  1. Primary generalised seizures
  2. Secondary generalised seizures
Status Epilepticus

Status epilepticus is a seizure which lasts for a long time, or repeats without recovery. This prolonged or repeated seizure activity can result in death if it is not treated immediately.

Status epilepticus can be convulsive (tonic-clonic or myoclonic seizures) or non-convulsive (absence or complex partial seizures). A person in non-convulsive status epilepticus may appear confused or dazed.



Reassurance, High concentrations of O2,Monitoring vital signs. Loosen tight clothing, Do not attempt to restrain patient, Remove any hazards that may fall or injure patient, Do not put anything in patients mouth, lay patient on their side so any fluid in their mouth can drain away, When the seizure ends allow the patient to rest or sleep, Deal with any injuries sustained during attack. 

Secondary Survey

ASHICE (Consider)

Transport to Hospital 

Professional Handover

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  • The word "epilepsy" comes from the Greek word for "seizure".