Maxillo Facial Injuries

Maxillofacial trauma refers to any injury to the face or jaw caused by physical force, foreign objects, or burns. Any part of the face may be affected. Teeth may be knocked out or loosened. The eyes and their muscles, nerves, and blood vessels may be injured as well as the eye socket (orbit), which can be fractured by a forceful blow. The lower jaw (mandible) may be dislocated by force. The jaw is unstable in comparison with other bones and is easily dislocated. A fractured nose or jaw may affect the ability to breathe or eat. Any maxillofacial trauma may also prevent the passage of air or be severe enough to cause a concussion or more serious brain injury.

The after affects of a Maxillo Facial injury can have a psychological bearing on the patient as they may well be deformed and scarred from their injuries

From the description above you can work out that the main problem is airway obstruction caused by swelling, physical obstruction from broken teeth and from blood from the mouth or nose. Secondly if the impact is severe enough to cause facial damage then you must always suspect a C spine injury will also be present. 

Caution: Because a C spine injury requires inline immobilisation this means the patient needs to be on a spinal board, this then presents a further problem of blood and fluid running down the throat, again airway obstruction can occur. Incline the spinal board on a folded blanket to allow postural drainage. Suction is another option.



Secondary Survey

Reassurance, Entonox for pain relief, Oxygen, Take broken teeth to hospital as these can be put back in when in surgery.


Transport to Hospital

Professional Handover

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